Facts about Northallerton
Northallerton is a market town and civil parish in North Yorkshire, England. The town is located near the River Wiske in the Vale of Mowbray. It had a population of 16,832 in the 2011 census, an increase from 15,741 in 2001. Northallerton is the county town of North Yorkshire and the administrative centre of North Yorkshire Council until 1974 it was part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, of which it was also the county town.
There has been a settlement at Northallerton since Roman times; however its growth in importance began in the 11th century when King William II gifted land to the Bishop of Durham. Under the Bishop’s authority Northallerton became an important religious centre. Later, it was a focus for much conflict between the English and the Scots, most notably the Battle of the Standard, fought nearby in 1138, which saw losses of as many as 12,000 men.
Due to the proximity of the Roman road, entrenchments and relics it seems that the earliest settlement at Northallerton was some form of Roman military station. There is evidence that the Romans had a signal station on Castle Hills just to the west of the town as part of the imperial Roman postal system and a path connecting Hadrian’s Wall with Eboracum (York) ran through what is now the neighbouring village of Brompton.
The first church was set up by St Paulinus of York on the site of the present All Saints Parish Church sometime in the early 7th century. It was made from wood and nothing survives of it. In 855 a stone church was built on the same site; fragments of stone have been found during restoration work which provide strong evidence of this Angle church.