Facts about Northumberland
During the Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian’s Wall. It was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium. As evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including those at; Alnwick, Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Newcastle and Warkworth.
Later, the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which united with Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century. The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts gradually reclaimed the land previously invaded by the Saxon kingdom.
Northumberland is a ceremonial county and historic county in North East England. It is bordered by Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a path 103 kilometres long. The county town is Alnwick. Northumberland county is administered as a unitary authority by Northumberland County Council, headquartered in Morpeth.
The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400 when the city became a county of itself. Northumberland expanded greatly in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572. Islandshire, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972.